AUTHOR : 김수정,곽금주
INFORMATION : page. 29~50 / 2014 Vol.21 No.3
The purpose of this study was to examine how children’s extraversion and effortful control temperament develop from ages 5 to 7, and how this developmental change is associated with their intelligence at age 7. The participants in this study comprised 100 pairs of 5-year-old child and their mothers. The temperaments of participating children were measured with mothers’ reports at 5, 6, and 7 years of age, and their intelligence was measured using K-WISC III at the age 7. The effect of the developmental changes in children’s temperament on intelligence development was investigated by means of latent growth modeling. According to the results, the ‘extraversion’ temperament was negatively correlated with Verbal IQ and Performance IQ. The ‘effortful control’ temperament was positively correlated with PIQ and VIQ. Next, there were individual differences in children’s extraversion at the age of 5, and these individual differences were also observed in the rate change over the next 3 years. ‘Extraversion’ temperament at the age of 5 negatively affected both PIQ and VIQ. Lastly, there were individual differences in children’s ‘effortful control’ at the age of 5, and the rate change in ‘effortful control’ from 5 to 7 also showed individual differences. The rate change of the ‘effortful control’ temperament had a marginally positive effect on VIQ, and the initial values of ‘effortful control’ had a positive effect on PIQ. Through longitudinal analyses of relations between children's temperament and intelligence, the study findings suggest that temperament affects intelligence development.