AUTHOR : 김민화, 박희숙, 최경숙
INFORMATION : page. 17~36 / 2001 Vol.8 No.2
This study aims to clarify improving effect of abstract principle on access of analogical problem solving in children. We could draw out three developmental stages of access for analogical problem solving. In the first stage children could not retrieve structurally similar story from sources, nor could re-retrieve it for problem solving. They failed in analogical problem solving and could not verify their solutions by the structural similarity. In the second stage children could not retrieve structurally similar source story at first but could finally re-retrieve it. And they could solve a problem and verify their successful solution by the structural similarity. In the final stage, children could access and retrieve structural similarity with sound analogy, and successfully solve a problem. In the present study, subjects consisted of preschoolers, first graders, and third graders, who had failed in structural retrieval and problem solving in prior analogical task. They were at the first stage of access. We provided to them in experimental group abstract principles as cues, and examined the effects of cues on their access and problem solving. When they received a cue, an abstract principle, there was an increase of successful problem solving only in first graders. But such an increase did not guarantee that children could efficiently retrieve the structural similarity. They received a cue but their retrieval processes could shift from the first stage to the second stage, nor to the final stage. This result showed that the development of analogical problem solving mediated by the development of access. We could find educational implication that calls for considering age and cognitive level for improving analogical abilities.